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Traceur (male) and traceuse (female)are both words derived from the French verb tracer which normally means "to trace"or "to draw", but also translates as "to go fast". The practitioners of parkour are called these.
Parkour is the art of moving through your environment using only your body and the surroundings to propel yourself. It can include running, jumping, climbing, even crawling, if that is the most suitable movement for the situation. Parkour could be grasped by imagining a race through an obstacle course, the goal is to overcome obstacles quickly and efficiently, without using extraneous movement. Apply this line of thought to an urban environment, or even a run through the woods, and you're on the right path. Because individual movements could vary so greatly by the situation, it is better to consider Parkour as defined by the intention instead of the movements themselves. If the intention is to get somewhere using the most effective movements with the least loss of momentum, then it could probably be considered Parkour.
A vault in which a person jumps off of one foot, passes over the obstacle feet first, pushes off the obstacle with both hands, and then lands. This is often a very inefficient vault, as you could basically jump over the obstacle with the same movement, but it does have value when it is appropriate for the resultant landing area.
Precision Jump - Standing on a fixed spot, (a bar, a wall etc.) and jumping to and landing precisely on another fixed spot. This is while maintaining your balance and not letting your momentum carry you past or over the landing spot.
Landing is a critical part of Parkour, it pertains to any time you come down from an object or higher place. "Landing" as a verb specifically refers to the way that shock and impact are absorbed to try to minimize strain on joints such as the knees and ankles. Some landings will include a roll, but sometimes this is not necessary, and a landing can just be a compression of the knees, if necessary one can slap the ground, although for most people this will put them in a position to have too much pressure put on the lower back. Landing falls under the original French term Saut de Fond, which means dropping.
A tic tac involves using an obstacle to "gain position" on another obstacle. For instance if you want to jump over a wall that is too high, but there is a bench you can jump to first, then you could "Tic-Tac" off the bench to clear the wall. A Tic-Tac can also be done off a wall to change direction or to clear an object that couldn't be cleared from the ground. This technique is commonly used to overcome a low object or gap, to vault a higher object, or leading into a cat leap. The same term is used in French terminology.
A wallrun is a way to ascend a wall or tall object by using one or more steps to propel your body upward, and then your hands to get on top of or clear the obstacle. If only one step is necessary it is called a "Pop Vault". The French term for this is Passe Murame or "Wall Pass".
An underbar is generally described as the passing between two objects, in which you jump, pass through the obstacles, and land on the other side. The most common situations to use an underbar include through rails, trees, or scaffolding. The French term for this is Francissement.
A vault in which the top half of your body goes over the object, grasping something on the other side, where the rest of your body comes over in a motion similar to a handspring. A good vault for a high object where it is easier to get your top half over and then have a handhold to slow your descent.